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  • Dysuria : vague term; often taken to mean discomfort or pain on passing urine
  • Frequency : a subjective symptom of needing to pass urine more frequently than the patient considers normal for them
  • Haematuria : Blood in the urine. This can be microscopic (invisible to the naked eye, more properly called 'non-visible') or macroscopic (obvious on inspection, also called 'frank' but properly termed 'visible').
  • Hesitancy : the sensation of needing to wait longer than normal for a urine stream to commence on voiding
  • Nocturia : Excessive micturition during the night. Technically, it is the need to pass urine after going to bed to sleep and before rising. Once per night is so common it is effectively normal.
  • Pain : The exact location of pain will depend on the part of the urinary tract affected.
  • Urinary incontinence - involuntary passing of urine
  • Urinary retention - inability to pass urine from a filled bladder. This can be 'acute' or 'chronic' (or, indeed, 'acute-on-chronic') and all three have rather different management paradigms.
Acute retention is the sudden inability to void, is characterised by pain and a desire but inability to void. Bladder volumes are typically less than a litre.
Chronic retention is incomplete emptying of the bladder such that a significant residual is left behind. It is typically painless but may be associated with a sensation of incomplete bladder emptying. It can be 'high pressure' and associated with renal impairment, or low pressure and this is determined by the resting pressure of the bladder (above about 25cmH2O will typically cause hydronephrosis and renal dysfunction).
Acute-on-chronic is the acute deterioration and presentation of a patient who usually chronically retains. They may be in renal failure and often have drained bladder volumes significantly greater than a litre.



Can be classified into causes or along anatomical lines:




The term urinary tract infection is a general term that does not indicate either the location or severity of the infection. It can cover a range of infections, from uncomplicated, self-limiting cystitis to life-threatening, systemic urosepsis. In common parlance, it often refers to uncomplicated cystits and urethritis, but for clarity it is helpful to be more specific about the location and the context of an UTI.

see also Urinary tract infection:

Upper Urinary Tract


Lower Urinary Tract



Male Reproductive Tract

Penis Testes


This category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total.